Publications

Explore a collection of publications and projects, from diverse fields, that cite Pupil Labs and use Pupil Labs eye tracking hardware and software in their research.

Filters

Year

19
64
54
47
40
49
25
9

Fields

68
40
40
36
24
24
23
23
22
21
15
15
14
13
12
11
10
10
10
9
8
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-0 of 307 publications
Towards Finding the Optimum Position in the Visual Field for a Head Worn Display Used for Task Guidance with Non-registered Graphics
2021
Eye Tracking, Augmented Reality, Psychology, HCI, UI/UX, Computer Graphics, Assistive Technology
Georgianna Lin, Malcolm Haynes, Sarthak Srinivas, Pramod Kotipalli, and Thad Starner
Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies
Where should a HWD be placed in a user's visual field? We present two studies that compare comfort, preference, task efficiency and accuracy for various HWD positions. The first study offsets a 9.2° horizontal field-of-view (FOV) display temporally (toward the ear) from 0° to 30° in 10° steps. 30° proves too uncomfortable while 10° is the most preferred position for a simple button-pushing game, corroborating results from previous single-task reading experiments. The second experiment uses a Magic Leap One to compare 10° x 10° FOV interfaces centered at line-of-sight, temporally offset 15° (center-right), inferiorly offset 15° (bottom-center), and offset in both directions (bottom-right) for an order picking task. The bottom-right position proved worst in terms of accuracy and several subjective metrics when compared to the line-of-sight position.
Measuring inter- and intra-individual differences in visual scan patterns in a driving simulator experiment using active information storage
2021
Eye Tracking, Cognitive Science, Psychology
Christiane B. Wiebel-Herboth, Matti Krüger, Patricia Wollstadt
PLoS One
Scan pattern analysis has been discussed as a promising tool in the context of real-time gaze-based applications. In particular, information-theoretic measures of scan path predictability, such as the gaze transition entropy (GTE), have been proposed for detecting relevant changes in user state or task demand. These measures model scan patterns as first-order Markov chains, assuming that only the location of the previous fixation is predictive of the next fixation in time. However, this assumption may not be sufficient in general, as recent research has shown that scan patterns may also exhibit more long-range temporal correlations. Thus, we here evaluate the active information storage (AIS) as a novel information-theoretic approach to quantifying scan path predictability in a dynamic task. In contrast to the GTE, the AIS provides means to statistically test and account for temporal correlations in scan path data beyond the previous last fixation. We compare AIS to GTE in a driving simulator experiment, in which participants drove in a highway scenario, where trials were defined based on an experimental manipulation that encouraged the driver to start an overtaking maneuver. Two levels of difficulty were realized by varying the time left to complete the task. We found that individual observers indeed showed temporal correlations beyond a single past fixation and that the length of the correlation varied between observers. No effect of task difficulty was observed on scan path predictability for either AIS or GTE, but we found a significant increase in predictability during overtaking. Importantly, for participants for which the first-order Markov chain assumption did not hold, this was only shown using AIS but not GTE. We conclude that accounting for longer time horizons in scan paths in a personalized fashion is beneficial for interpreting gaze pattern in dynamic tasks.
Emotional Impact of Dishes versus Wines on Restaurant Diners: From Haute Cuisine Open Innovation
2021
Pupillometry, Neuromarketing, Psychology
Mengual-Recuerda A, Tur-Viñes V, Juárez-Varón D, Alarcón-Valero F
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
Haute cuisine is emblematic in the world of tourism and is of fundamental importance in the economic and social life in most countries worldwide. Haute cuisine gastronomic experiences play with the senses, involving the diner, thus generating a unique experience for the customer. This empirical study aims to analyze the influence on the consumer of the characteristic stimuli of a high-level gastronomic experience in a restaurant with two Michelin stars. Using neuromarketing biometrics, combined with a qualitative research technique, the objective of this research was to determine the emotional impact of the presentation and tasting of dishes compared to wines and to draw conclusions about each variable in the general experience. The results indicate that the dishes have a greater influence on the level of interest than the wines, and both have a different emotional impact at different moments of the experience due to its duration.
The next step in optimising the stair horizontal-vertical illusion: Does a perception-action link exist in older adults?
2021
Cognitive Science, Psychology, Gerontology, Ergonomics, Health and Safety, Human Factors
Timmion K. Skervin, Neil M. Thomas, Andrew J. Schofield, Mark A. Hollands, Constantinos N. Maganaris, Richard J. Foster
Experimental Gerontology
Introduction Tripping on stairs results from insufficient foot to step edge clearance and can often lead to a fall in older adults. A stair horizontal-vertical illusion is suggested to increase the perceived riser height of a step and increase foot clearance when stepping up. However, this perception-action link has not been empirically determined in older adults. Previous findings suggesting a perception-action effect have also been limited to a single step or a three-step staircase. On larger staircases, somatosensory learning of step heights may be greater which could override the illusory effect on the top step. Furthermore, the striped nature of the existing stair horizontal-vertical illusion is associated with visual stress and may not be aesthetically suitable for use on public stairs. These issues need resolving before potential future implementation on public stairs. Methods Experiment 1. A series of four computer-based perception tests were conducted in older (N = 14: 70 ± 6 years) and young adults (N = 42: 24 ± 3 years) to test the influence of different illusion designs on stair riser height estimation. Participants compared images of stairs, with horizontal-vertical illusions or arbitrary designs on the bottom step, to a plain stair with different bottom step riser heights and selected the stair they perceived to have the tallest bottom riser. Horizontal-vertical illusions included a previously developed design and versions with modified spatial frequencies and mark space ratios. Perceived riser height differences were assessed between designs and between age groups. Experiment 2. To assess the perception-action link, sixteen older (70 ± 7 years) and fifteen young (24 ± 3 years) adults ascended a seven-step staircase with and without horizontal-vertical illusions tested in experiment 1 placed onto steps one and seven. Foot clearances were measured over each step. To determine whether changes in perception were linked to changes in foot clearance, perceived riser heights for each horizontal-vertical illusion were assessed using the perception test from experiment 1 before and after stair ascent. Additional measures to characterise stair safety included vertical foot clearance, margins of stability, foot overhang, stair speed, and gaze duration, which were assessed over all seven steps. Results Experiment 1. All horizontal-vertical illusion designs led to significant increases in the perceived riser height in both young and older adults (12–19% increase) with no differences between age groups. Experiment 2. On step 7, each horizontal-vertical illusion led to an increase in vertical foot clearance for young (up to 0.8 cm) and older adults (up to 2.1 cm). On step 1 significant increases in vertical foot clearance were found for a single horizontal-vertical illusion when compared to plain (1.19 cm increase). The horizontal-vertical illusions caused significant increases in the perceived riser height (young; 13% increase, older; 11% increase) with no differences between illusion design, group or before and after stair ascent. No further differences were found for the remaining variables and steps. Conclusion Results indicate a perception-action link between perceived riser height and vertical foot clearance in response to modified versions of the horizontal-vertical illusion in both young and older adults. This was shown with no detriment to additional stair safety measures. Further evaluating these illusions on private/public stairs, especially those with inconsistently taller steps, may be beneficial to help improve stair safety for older adults.
Effects of Noise and Serial Position on Free Recall of Spoken Words and Pupil Dilation during Encoding in Normal-Hearing Adults
2021
Pupillometry, Cognitive Science, Psychology
Koo M, Jeon J, Moon H, Suh M, Lee J, Oh S, Park M
Brain Sciences
This preliminary study assessed the effects of noise and stimulus presentation order on recall of spoken words and recorded pupil sizes while normal-hearing listeners were trying to encode a series of words for a subsequent recall task. In three listening conditions (stationary noise in Experiment 1; quiet versus four-talker babble in Experiment 2), participants were assigned to remember as many words as possible to recall them in any order after each list of seven sentences. In the two noise conditions, lists of sentences fixed at 65 dB SPL were presented at an easily audible level via a loudspeaker. Reading span (RS) scores were used as a grouping variable, based on a median split. The primacy effect was present apart from the noise interference, and the high-RS group significantly outperformed the low-RS group at free recall measured in the quiet and four-talker babble noise conditions. RS scores were positively correlated with free-recall scores. In both quiet and four-talker babble noise conditions, sentence baselines after correction to the initial stimulus baseline increased significantly with increasing memory load. Larger sentence baselines but smaller peak pupil dilations seemed to be associated with noise interruption. The analysis method of pupil dilation used in this study is likely to provide a more thorough understanding of how listeners respond to a later recall task in comparison with previously used methods. Further studies are needed to confirm the applicability of our method in people with impaired hearing using multiple repetitions to estimate the allocation of relevant cognitive resources.
Visuo-motor attention during object interaction in children with developmental coordination disorder
2021
Eye Tracking, Cognitive Science, Psychology
Tom Arthur, David J. Harris, Kate Allen, Caitlin E. Naylor, Greg Wood, Sam Vine, Mark R. Wilson, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Gavin Buckingham
Cortex
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) describes a condition of poor motor performance in the absence of intellectual impairment. Despite being one of the most prevalent developmental disorders, little is known about how fundamental visuomotor processes might function in this group. One prevalent idea is children with DCD interact with their environment in a less predictive fashion than typically developing children. A metric of prediction which has not been examined in this group is the degree to which the hands and eyes are coordinated when performing manual tasks. To this end, we examined hand and eye movements during an object lifting task in a group of children with DCD (n = 19) and an age-matched group of children without DCD (n = 39). We observed no differences between the groups in terms of how well they coordinated their hands and eyes when lifting objects, nor in terms of the degree by which the eye led the hand. We thus find no evidence to support the proposition that children with DCD coordinate their hands and eyes in a non-predictive fashion. In a follow-up exploratory analysis we did, however, note differences in fundamental patterns of eye movements between the groups, with children in the DCD group showing some evidence of atypical visual sampling strategies and gaze anchoring behaviours during the task.
Human-Piloted Drone Racing: Visual Processing and Control
2021
Eye Tracking, Robotics, Automotive, Aviation
C. Pfeiffer and D. Scaramuzza
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 3467-3474
Humans race drones faster than algorithms, despite being limited to a fixed camera angle, body rate control, and response latencies in the order of hundreds of milliseconds. A better understanding of the ability of human pilots of selecting appropriate motor commands from highly dynamic visual information may provide key insights for solving current challenges in vision-based autonomous navigation. This work investigates the relationship between human eye movements, control behavior, and flight performance in a drone racing task. We collected a multimodal dataset from 21 experienced drone pilots using a highly realistic drone racing simulator, also used to recruit professional pilots. Our results show task-specific improvements in drone racing performance over time. In particular, we found that eye gaze tracks future waypoints (i.e., gates), with first fixations occurring on average 1.5 seconds and 16 meters before reaching the gate. Moreover, human pilots consistently looked at the inside of the future flight path for lateral (i.e., left and right turns) and vertical maneuvers (i.e., ascending and descending). Finally, we found a strong correlation between pilots’ eye movements and the commanded direction of quadrotor flight, with an average visual-motor response latency of 220 ms. These results highlight the importance of coordinated eye movements in human-piloted drone racing. We make our dataset publicly available.
Classifying Excavator Collisions Based on Users’ Visual Perception in theMixed Reality Environment
2021
Health and Safety, Human Factors, Psychology, VR, Eye Tracking
Viking Forsman, Markus Wallmyr, Taufik Akbar Sitompul, Rikard Lindell
Proceedings of the 16th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 2: HUCAPP, 2, 255–262
Visual perception plays an important role for recognizing possible hazards. In the context of heavy machinery,relevant visual information can be obtained from the machine’s surrounding and from the human-machineinterface that exists inside the cabin. In this paper, we propose a method that classifies the occurring collisionsby combining the data collected by the eye tracker and the automatic logging mechanism in the mixed real-ity simulation. Thirteen participants were asked to complete a test scenario in the mixed reality simulation,while wearing an eye tracker. The results demonstrate that we could classify the occurring collisions basedon two visual perception conditions: (1) whether the colliding objects were visible from the participants’ fieldof view and (2) whether the participants have seen the information presented on the human-machine interfacebefore the collisions occurred. This approach enabled us to interpret the occurring collisions differently, com-pared to the traditional approach that uses the total number of collisions as the representation of participants’performance.
Linear and non linear measures of pupil size as a function of hypnotizability
2021
Psychology, Pupillometry, Neuroscience
Antonio Lanatà, Alberto Greco, Mirco Ciardelli, Allison Uvelli, Elisabetta Fratini, Diego Manzoni, Enzo P. Scilingo, Enrica L. Santarcangelo & Laura Sebastiani
Scientific Reports (Nature)
Higher arousal and cortical excitability have been observed in high hypnotizable individuals (highs) with respect to low hypnotizables (lows), which may be due to differences in the activation of ascending activating systems. The present study investigated the possible hypnotizability-related difference in the cortical noradrenergic tone sustained by the activity of the Locus Coeruleus which is strongly related to pupil size. This was measured during relaxation in three groups of participants—highs (N = 15), lows (N = 15) and medium hypnotizable individuals (mediums, N = 11)—in the time and frequency domains and through the Recurrence Quantification Analysis. ECG and Skin Conductace (SC) were monitored to extract autonomic indices of relaxation (heart interbeats intervals, parasympathetic component of heart rate variability (RMSSD) and tonic SC (MeanTonicSC). Most variables indicated that participants relaxed throughout the session. Pupil features did not show significant differences between highs, mediums and lows, except for the spectral Band Median Frequency which was higher in mediums than in lows and highs at the beginning, but not at the end of the session.Thus, the present findings of pupil size cannot account for the differences in arousal and motor cortex excitability observed between highs and lows in resting conditions.
Influence of step-surface visual properties on confidence, anxiety, dynamic stability, and gaze behaviour in young and older adults
2021
Psychology, Human Factors, Ergonomics, Architecture, Gerontology
Neil M. Thomas, Timmion K. Skervin, Richard J. Foster, Johnny V. Parr, Mark G. Carpenter, Thomas D. O'Brien, Constantinos N. Maganaris, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Carolyn Lees, Mark A. Hollands
Human Movement Science
Background Step-surface visual properties are often associated with stair falls. However, evidence for decorating stairs typically concerns the application of step-edge highlighters rather than the entire step-surface. Here we examine the influence of step-surface visual properties on stair descent safety, with a view to generating preliminary evidence for safe stair décor. Methods Fourteen young (YA: 23.1 ± 3.7 years), 13 higher (HAOA: 67 ± 3.5) and 14 lower (LAOA: 73.4 ± 5.7) ability older adults descended a seven-step staircase. Older adults were stratified based on physiological/cognitive function. Step-surface décor patterns assessed were: Black and white (Busy); fine grey (Plain); and striped multicolour (Striped); each implemented with/without black edge-highlighters (5.5 cm width) totalling six conditions. Participants descended three times per condition. Confidence was assessed prior to, and anxiety following, the first descent in each condition. 3D kinematics (Vicon) quantified descent speed, margin of stability, and foot clearances with respect to step-edges. Eye tracking (Pupil-labs) recorded gaze. Data from three phases of descent (entry, middle, exit) were analysed. Linear mixed-effects models assessed within-subject effects of décor (×3) and edge highlighters (×2), between-subject effects of age (×3), and interactions between terms (α = p < .05). Results Décor: Plain décor reduced anxiety in all ages and abilities (p = .032, effect size: gav = 0.3), and increased foot clearances in YA and HAOA in the middle phase (p < .001, gav = 0.53), thus improving safety. In contrast, LAOA exhibited no change in foot clearance with Plain décor. Patterned décor slowed descent (Busy: p < .001, gav = 0.2), increased margins of stability (Busy: p < .001, gav = 0.41; Striped: p < .001, gav = 0.25) and reduced steps looked ahead (Busy: p = .053, gav = 0.25; Striped: p = .039, gav = 0.28) in all ages and abilities. This reflects cautious descent, likely due to more challenging conditions for visually extracting information about the spatial characteristics of the steps useful to guide descent. Edge highlighters: Step-edge highlighters increased confidence (p < .001, gav = 0.53) and reduced anxiety (p < .001, gav = 0.45) in all ages and abilities and for all décor, whilst removing them slowed descent in HAOA (p = .01, gav = 0.26) and LAOA (p = .003, gav = 0.25). Step-edge highlighters also increased foot clearance in YA and HAOA (p = .003, gav = 0.14), whilst LAOA older adults showed no adaptation. No change in foot clearances with décor or step-edge highlighters in LAOA suggests an inability to adapt to step-surface visual properties. Conclusion Patterned step surfaces can lead to more cautious and demanding stair negotiation from the perspective of visually extracting spatial information about the steps. In contrast, plain décor with step edge highlighters improves safety. We therefore suggest plain décor with edge highlighters is preferable for use on stairs.
  • ...
  • ...