Publications

Explore a collection of publications and projects, from diverse fields, that cite Pupil Labs and use Pupil Labs eye tracking hardware and software in their research. You can also find this collection on Zotero.

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0-0 of 526 publications
Keeping balance during head-free smooth pursuit: The role of aging
2023
body movement
Petros Georgiadis; Konstantinos Chatzinikolaou; Dimitrios Voudouris; Jaap Van Dieen; Vassilia Hatzitaki
Human Movement Science
Standing balance is often more unstable when visually pursuing a moving target than when fixating on a stationary one. These effects are common in both young and older adults when the head is restrained during visual task performance. The present study focused on the role of head motion on standing balance during smooth pursuit as a function of age. Three predictions were tested: a) standing balance is compromised to a greater extent in older than young adults by gaze target pursuit compared to fixation, b) older adults pursue a moving target with greater and more variable head rotation than young adults, and c) greater and more variable head rotation during the smooth pursuit task is associated with greater Center of Pressure (CoP) sway. Twenty-two (22) older (age: 71.7 ± 8.1, 12 M / 10 F) and twenty-three (23) young adults (age: 23.6 ± 2.5, 12 M / 11 F) stood on a force plate while either fixating a stationary or smoothly pursuing a horizontally moving target (31.9° peak-to-peak visual angle). CoP (Bertec Balance Plate), head kinematics (Vicon Motion Analysis) and head-unconstrained gaze (Pupil Labs Invisible) were synchronously recorded. The root means square (RMS) of CoP velocity increased during smooth pursuit compared to fixation regardless of age (p < .05), while the interquartile CoP range increased only in older and not in young participants (p < .05). We also calculated the head rotation range (peak to peak cycle amplitude) of motion and variability (SD of range of motion) across the cycles of the smooth pursuit task. Older adults pursued the moving target employing more variable (p = .022) head yaw rotation than young participants although the mean range of head rotation was similar between groups (p =. 077). The amplitude and variability of head yaw rotation did not correlate with CoP sway measures. Results suggest that head-free pursuing of a moving target decreased balance to a greater extent in old than young individuals when compared to fixation. Nevertheless, postural sway during head-free smooth pursuit was not associated with the extent or variability of head rotation.
Distracted worker: Using pupil size and blink rate to detect cognitive load during manufacturing tasks
2023
Ergonomics, Pupillometry
Francesco N. Biondi; Babak Saberi; Frida Graf; Joel Cort; Prarthana Pillai; Balakumar Balasingam
Applied Ergonomics
This study sets out to extend the use of blink rate and pupil size to the assessment of cognitive load of completing common automotive manufacturing tasks. Nonoptimal cognitive load is detrimental to safety. Existing occupational ergonomics approaches come short of measuring dynamic changes in cognitive load during complex assembling tasks. Cognitive demand was manipulated by having participants complete two versions of the n-back task (easy, hard). Two durations of the physical task were also considered (short, long). Pupil size and blink rate increased under greater cognitive task demand. High cognitive load also resulted in longer task completion times, and higher ratings of mental and temporal demand, and effort. This exploratory study offers relevant insights on the use of ocular metrics for cognitive load assessment in occupational ergonomics. While the existing eye-tracking technology may yet limit their adoption in the field, they offer advantages over the more popular expert-based and self-reported techniques in measuring changes in cognitive load during dynamic tasks.
Changing Drivers’ Cognitive Characteristics at Twilight in Freight Transportation
2023
driving
Oleksii Prasolenko; Dmytro Burko; Vitalii Chumachenko
International Conference on Smart Technologies in Urban Engineering
The paper is devoted to the issues of the freight transportation in the cities at twilight. A group of drivers aged from 20 to 40 years with a total driving experience of 3 to 16 years were studied. Drivers drove along well-known routes in twilight and with further darkness. The drivers’ attention indicators using the Pupil Labs headset, as well as changes in the functional state using indicators of heart rate, respiratory rate, galvanic skin response were measured. Drivers were divided into two groups with a driving experience of up to 10 years or more. The research results indicate a significant difference in the shifts of the functional state during movement along the routes for both groups. Drivers with less driving experience were less alert and more emotionally stressed. At the same time, drivers of both groups experienced significant difficulties in reducing lighting in the event of conflict situations while driving. At the same time, energy costs significantly exceeded the boundary indicators, and attention indicators deteriorated. This fact was observed when the level of illumination of the environment is less than 50 lx.
Effects of attentional focus and cognitive load on novice dart throwing: Evidence from quiet eye duration and pupillary responses
2022
Cognitive Psychology, Pupillometry, Sports Science
Ayoub Asadi; Mohammad R. Saeedpour-Parizi; Christopher A. Aiken; Zahra Jahanbani; Davoud Houminiyan Sharif Abadi; Thomas Simpson; David Marchant
Human Movement Science
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of attentional focus and cognitive-load on motor performance, quiet-eye-duration, and pupil dilation. 18 participants completed a dart throwing task under four conditions, internal or external focus with high or low cognitive-load. Cognitive-load was created by a secondary tone detection task. During each trial participants pupil size and eye movements were recorded along with accuracy data of the dart throw. Results revealed that decreased cognitive-load increased accuracy while high load increased pupil size (p's < 0.05). An external focus resulted in the greatest accuracy while an external focus with high cognitive-load resulted in the longest quiet-eye-durations (p's < 0.05). Based on these findings an increase in pupil size is related to greater cognitive-load but doesn't explain the improvement in task performance. Likewise, an external focus of attention improved performance but was not strongly related to quiet-eye-duration. Results are further discussed in the article.
Effective Human-Robot Collaboration via Generalized Robot Error Management Using Natural Human Responses
2022
HCI
Maia Stiber
2022 International Conference on Multimodal Interaction
Robot errors during human-robot interaction will be unavoidable. Their impact on the collaboration is dependent on the human’s perception of it and how timely it is detected and recovered from. Prior work in robot error management often uses task or error specific information for reliable management and so is not generalizable to other contexts or error types. To achieve generalized error management, one approach is the use of human response as input. My PhD thesis will focus on enabling effective human-robot interaction through leveraging users’ natural multimodal response to errors to detect, classify, mitigate, and recover from them. This extended abstract details my past, current, and future work towards this goal.
How robust are wearable eye trackers to slow and fast head and body movements?
2022
body movement
Ignace T. C. Hooge; Diederick C. Niehorster; Roy S. Hessels; Jeroen S. Benjamins; Marcus Nyström
Behavior Research Methods
How well can modern wearable eye trackers cope with head and body movement? To investigate this question, we asked four participants to stand still, walk, skip, and jump while fixating a static physical target in space. We did this for six different eye trackers. All the eye trackers were capable of recording gaze during the most dynamic episodes (skipping and jumping). The accuracy became worse as movement got wilder. During skipping and jumping, the biggest error was 5.8∘. However, most errors were smaller than 3∘. We discuss the implications of decreased accuracy in the context of different research scenarios.
Eye-Movement Deficits in Seniors with Hearing Aids: Cognitive and Multisensory Implications
2022
Audiology, Cognitive Psychology
Martin Chavant; Zoï Kapoula
Brain Sciences
In recent years, there has been a growing body of literature highlighting the relationship between presbycusis and consequences in areas other than hearing. In particular, presbycusis is linked to depression, dementia, and cognitive decline. Among this literature, the effect of hearing aids, currently the most common method of treating presbycusis, is also a growing research topic. This pilot study aims to explore the effects of hearing aids on the cognitive and multisensory consequences of presbycusis. To that purpose, saccades and vergences eye movements were studied, towards visual and audiovisual targets, of a presbycusis population wearing hearing aids for an average of two years. These measurements were done whether or not participants were wearing their hearing aids. Eye-movement characteristics, particularly latencies (the reaction time taken to initiate an eye movement), allows one to measure attentional and multisensory characteristics. Previous studies showed that presbycusis was linked with an increase of saccade latencies and an improvement in audiovisual interaction capacities, i.e., latencies for audiovisual targets are shorter than those for visual targets. Eye movements are measured and analyzed with REMOBI and AIDEAL technologies. Results show a shortening, with hearing aids, of right saccade latencies to visual targets, suggesting an increase in attention and/or engagement. Yet, saccade latencies are not shorter for audiovisual vs. visual targets alone, neither when wearing hearing aids, nor without. Moreover, convergence latencies are particularly slow for any type of target and with or without hearing aids. The results suggest deficits for audiovisual interactions and the initiation of convergences in that population. These deficits could be part of the factors triggering the need to wear hearing aids. These results therefore show interesting relationships between hearing-aid wearing in a presbycusis population and oculomotricity and invite further research in this area.
Usability testing of three visual HMIs for assisted driving: How design impacts driver distraction and mental models
2022
Cognitive Psychology, Ergonomics
Mickaël J. R. Perrier; Tyron L. Louw; Oliver M. J. Carsten
Ergonomics
There is a variety of visual human-machine interfaces (HMI) designed across vehicle manufacturers that support drivers while supervising driving automation features, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC). These various designs communicate the same limited amount of information to drivers about their ACC system and it is unclear which HMI designs impact driver distraction the least or how their design could be modified to help drivers develop more accurate mental models of their ACC system. Using a user-centred design (UCD) approach, we designed a speedometer to inform drivers about some of the system’s capabilities and then invited 23 drivers to use ACC in a low-fidelity driving simulator to compare the usability of three HMIs using eye-tracking, response times, and qualitative data. Our attempt at designing an intuitive and more informative speedometer received mixed results, but design recommendations are given regarding the indication of the set target speed, set time gap between vehicles (headway distance), and system mode (conventional or adaptive cruise). Practitioner summary: Manufacturers’ heterogeneous designs of their visual HMIs for the ACC systems may impact driver distraction in different ways. We used usability testing to compare three HMIs in a driving simulator and make several design recommendations to indicate speed, time gap, and system mode in a more efficient way. Abbreviations: ACC: adaptive cruise control; ADAS: advanced driving assistance system; HMI: human-machine interface; ISO: international organisation for standardization; OEM: original equipment manufacturer; RSME: rating scale of mental effort; RT: response time; R-TLX: raw task load index; SUS: system usability scale; TGT: total glance time; UCD: user-centred design; UX: user experience; xTGT: extended total glance time
The Research of Multi-user Cooperative Interaction Model in Augmented Reality
2022
Ergonomics, HCI, augmented reality
JingLiang Wang; Sensen Zhao; Lijun Wang
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers
This paper provides a review of the application equipment in multi-user collaborative design, and analyzes and prospects by reviewing the existing interaction models in the HCI field and the CSCW field. The collaborative interaction of multiple users in the augmented reality environment has become more prominent in academic research and engineering applications. Augmented reality technology has been successfully applied in medical, education, entertainment, simulation design and other related fields. However, as far as we know, the current research on interaction in augmented reality mainly focuses on the three aspects of physical interaction, three-dimensional interaction and mobile interaction, but there is less research about multi-user collaborative interaction. Therefore, this article conducts a comprehensive review of the research in this field from 1998 to 2021. As more and more users are accepting augmented reality as an interactive technology, the demands of collaborative task and technology demand have been increasing among multi-users. However, there are still some problems in existing research such as the immaturity of the collaborative application of augmented reality and the lack of interactive models for guiding the design of collaborative applications in the augmented reality environment. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze an effective collaborative interaction model to promote the realization of a prototype interaction system, so as to promote the application of augmented reality technology in collaborative interaction.
A toolkit for wide-screen dynamic area of interest measurements using the Pupil Labs Core Eye Tracker
2022
Gaze Estimation
Yasmin Faraji; Joris W. van Rijn; Ruth M. A. van Nispen; Ger H. M. B. van Rens; Bart J. M. Melis-Dankers; Jan Koopman; Laurentius J. van Rijn
Behavior Research Methods
Eye tracking measurements taken while watching a wide field screen are challenging to perform. Commercially available remote eye trackers typically do not measure more than 35 degrees in eccentricity. Analysis software was developed using the Pupil Core Eye Tracking data to analyze viewing behavior under circumstances as natural as possible, on a 1.55-m-wide screen allowing free head movements. Additionally, dynamic area of interest (AOI) analyses were performed on data of participants viewing traffic scenes. A toolkit was created including software for simple allocation of dynamic AOIs (semi-automatically and manually), measurement of parameters such as dwell times and time to first entry, and overlaying gaze and AOIs on video. Participants (n =11) were asked to look at 13 dynamic AOIs in traffic scenes from appearance to disappearance in order to validate the setup and software. Different AOI margins were explored for the included objects. The median ratio between total appearance time and dwell time was about 90% for most objects when appropriate margins were chosen. This validated open-source toolkit is readily available for researchers who want to perform dynamic AOI analyses with the Pupil Core eye tracker, especially when measurements are desired on a wide screen, in various fields such as psychology, transportation, and low vision research.